Bark, roots are so helpful in immune boosting. The plant constitutes an important ingredient in rain- making, medicine and also used in many other ceremonies. A decoction of the roots is drunk to alleviate ruheutic pains. Leaves and bark infusion is given to chicken suffering from cough, gasping and diarrhea. Bark decoction drunk for stomachache, kidney and heart ailments. The roots are mixed with those of hariasonia Abyssinia (musheshe) and used for the treatment of T.B and other chest pains. When Roots are boiled, the decoction is drunk twice a day as an Aphrodicisiac.

Other uses

Leaves are good fodder, wood soft and easy to work; Best fibers used for bands, ropes, storage bins. Many medicinal and fetish uses: leaves; tonic tea, wound healing, contains rotenone and tannins bark abortive; roots have antidotal effects against various toxic agents and fish poison (ichtyotoxic). Complied by Proficient Muteguya at ALLELUIA NUTRINAL CENTRE.




As we all know the VERNONIA AMYDALINA is popular for its bitterness, its leaves, stem, roots and bark; a little reminder that life isn’t all sweetness, therefore the slang name BITTER LEAF. Take a leaf decoction that is widely used medically around Africa for treatment of various ailments for Emesis, nausea, diabetes, appetite, dysentery and Gastrointestinal tract problems.

vomonia is used in treatment of constipation, hepatitis, malaria fever, intestinal parasites and as purgative and as soup vegetable.

Urinary track inflammation and as a purgative and as a soup vegetable (young leaves)

Stem Bark, roots, & leaves are used as purgative, ant malarial & for treatment of local chicken in Kenya. In Tanzania it’s used for stomachache, Dysentery, trypernasomiasis and intestinal parasites.

It has been reported to significantly reduce glucose by using leaves in diabetic’s patient and stomachache

The treatment of gingivitis and toothache provides Aniti-oxidant benefits enhance the immune system.

Proficient Muteguya goes a head in educating about herbs, Bitter herbs help to tone vital organs of the body like the kidney and liver. The Liver is the largest organ in the body and is responsible for the secretion of bile and formation of glycogen. It is also responsible for the metabolism of protein and fats, infarct it’s an organ anyone would want to keep intact cause once there is a defect it is very hard to correct, alcohol, sugar and over processed foods should be avoided. The Kidney helps expel waste materials from the body; a breakdown of the kidney is a general disorder of the entire body. The bitter leaf contains vernodalin, venomygdin and saponin which are antibacterial that help keep this vital organs (kidney and liver) in order.

In Nigeria of West Africa the bitter leaf is used to cure Ring Worm, Rashes, and Eczema just by applying the pure undiluted extract of the bitter leaf to the affected part.

The bitter leaf also reduces the sugar level of the body drastically and repairs the pancreas, a wonder cure for diabetes, squeeze ten handful of the leaves in ten liters of water and take 2glasses 3times daily (6glasses daily) for one month.





Most of us are unaware that the healing powers of aloe extend much beyond cooling and repairing sunburnt skin. In ancient times, aloe vera and its extracts were used for medicinal purposes. Today, researchers are discovering more advantages of this versatile plant. Mentioned below are the top five health benefits of aloe vera, aloe vera juice, and aloe vera gel:

1.Certain properties of the aloe vera plant make it an excellent remedy for speeding up the healing process to any injury. Aloe vera is excellent for treating scars, burns, and cuts.
2. Aloe Vera is well known for its anti-inflammatory properties. In other words, it has the ability to arrest inflammation or slow it down due to the presence of fatty acids. Applying aloe vera gel can prevent or stop inflammation caused by injury, immune dysfunction, and many other problems.
3. Improves digestion and helps detoxify the body. Aloe vera juice and gel are both good laxatives and help in dealing with constipation.
4. As Aloe Vera is a cellular regenerator and has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects, these properties make aloe vera one of nature’s healthiest products. Being a strong antioxidant, it hunts down free radicals and protects the body.
5. The dried juice/gel of the aloe vera plant is traditionally used as a remedy for diabetes as the aloe vera juice lowers blood sugar.
Aloe Vera in almost all its forms possesses multiple medicinal qualities that can improve the immune system and help your body to recover more quickly, thereby increasing the quality of your life. Taking aloe vera in excess quantities can lead to harmful effects, so it is good to consume aloe vera in small amounts until you know how your body reacts to it.

Catha edulis or Catha edulis Forssk

MOMUTABUNGWA, OMUTABUNGARA Rwanda, KITANDWE, LUTANDWE Lugisu, NGONGO OR MUNYAGA Rukiga Official names: Catha edulis or Catha edulis Forssk

Street names: Khat, qat in Yemen, tschat in Ethiopia; miraa in Kenya; Abyssinian tea, African salad, African tea, Arabian tea, Bushman’s tea, chafta, chat, ciat, crafta, djimma, flower of paradise, ikwa, ischott, iubulu, kaad, kafta, kat, la salade, liss, liruti, mairongi, mandoma, maonj, marongi, mbugula mabwe, mhulu, miungi, mlonge, msabukinga, mas-bukinja, msuruti, msuvuti, msekera, muholo, muhulu, muirungi, mulungi, muraa, musitate, mutsawari, mwandama, mzengo, nangungwe, ol meraa, ol nerra, quat, salahin, seri, Somali tea, tohai, tohat, tsad, tschad, tschat, tshut, tumayot, waifo, warfi, warfo

Celastraceae is a family of one species, Catha edulis, also known as khat, or mirra.

Khat is typically cultivated as a shrub or small tree, sometimes reaching up to 15 m in height. The distribution area extends from S and E Africa to Arabia and Afghanistan. Main sources of Khat are Ethiopia, Somalia and Yemen.

The major stimulants in Khat, found in the leaves and young stems, are natural amphetamines, known as phenethylamines, or khatamines. Cathinone is the main compound; nor are pseudoephedrine and pseudoephedrine also present. Cathione is unstable, thus it is common practice to chew only the freshest leaves.

Leaves are either chewed or taken as a hot water infusion. Typically around 200 – 400 grams of leaves are used per day, equivalent to 60 – 120 mg of alkaloids.

Chewing khat offers a stimulating and euphoric effect and is an ancient, socially accepted tradition in parts of Africa and Arabia. Long term usage can lead to addiction, as doe’s long term usage of other amphetamines.

Khat is considered to have an aphrodisiac effects.

The plant is traditionally used to treat malaria, cough, and asthma. It is sold in areas of Europe and Africa as an appetite suppressant.

Khat stimulates the mind and increases mental power and sociability while suppressing feelings of fatigue, hunger and thirst. In Kenya and Uganda it is often chewed with bubble gum.

. Both roots and bark decoction is used to allay hunger and prevent sleep.




Tikas is stout herbaceous plant with a tuberous rootstock. Whole plant is green and smooth, growing 1.5 meters high. Leaves are lanceolate or ovate, 10 to 30 centimeters long, 10 to 20 centimeters wide. Inflorescence is somewhat waxy-glaucous, erect, with a peduncle about 30 centimeters long. Flowers are red, solitary or in pairs, the bracts about 1.3 centimeters long. Sepals are 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, greenish-white though sometimes tinged with red, and lanceolate or oblong. Corolla tube about 1 cm long, the involutes lobes being red or reddish, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long. The staminodes are bright-red, petal-like, the outer one being about 4 centimeters long, somewhat spatulate, acute, or slightly acuminate, and the others somewhat smaller, though the anther-bearing ones are as long as the outer one, about 4 centimeters wide, and recurved about the insertion of the anther. Inflorescence somewhat waxy-glaucous, erect, with a peduncle about 30 centimeters long. Fruits are capsules, green oblong-ovoid, softly echinate (spiny), and 2 to 2.5 centimeters long. Seeds are about the size of a pea, somewhat spherical, with shining, black seed-coat.

Throughout the Philippines in settled areas, occurring in waste places and near settlements.
– Native of tropical America, and now pan tropic in distribution.

Sweet-tasting, slightly cooling-natured, antipyretic, relieves gastrointestinal disorders.
Rhizomes considered demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, antipyretic.
Seeds considered cordial and vulnerary.
Roots considered acrid and stimulant.

· principally used in the treatment of acute jaundice type of hepatitis. Use 15 to 30 gms dried material or 60 to 90 gms fresh rhizome material in decoction. Commonly, recovery from jaunditic symptoms may be observed after one week of administration.
· In the Philippines, decoction of rhizome used as diuretic. Also, when macerated in water, used to alleviate nosebleeds.
In Costa Rica infusion of leaves used as diuretic; rhizomes used as emollient.
· Decoction of rhizomes used in fevers, dropsy and dyspepsia.
· Flowers may be used for external wound bleeding – use 10 to 15 gm dried material in decoction.
• In Bangladesh, paste of plant used for tonsillitis. 
• In Thailand, rhizome has been used with other herbs for cancer treatment.
• In southwest Nigeria, leaves used for malaria

Root – cooked. The source of ‘canna starch’, used as arrowroot [97, 177]. The arrowroot is obtained by rasping the root to a pulp, then washing and straining to get rid of the fibres[2]. The very young tubers are eaten cooked, they are sweet but fibrousy[97, K]. Roots contain about 25% starch [61]. There is one report that this plant has an edible fruit[177] but this is somewhat dubious, the fruit is a dry capsule containing the very hard seeds

The plant is used in the treatment of women’s complaints [218]. A decoction of the root with fermented rice is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea and amenorrhoea[218]. The plant is also considered to be demulcent, diaphoretic and diuretic Canna indica

1: canna grown especially for its edible rootstock from which

         Arrowroot starch is obtained [syn: achira, indian shot, arrowroot,[1]

A starch is made from the rhizomes that are very similar to, and a good substitute for, arrowroot starch which is derived from an unrelated plant, Maranta arundinacea. The young rhizomes of Indian shot are sometimes eaten; they are sweet, but woody and fibrous. The seeds are perfectly round and very hard and reportedly were used as shot for flintlock muskets when lead shot was not available. Nowadays the seeds are commonly used as beads in natural seed jewelry for necklaces and especially rosaries

The early American botanist and explorer, William Bartram, wrote in his book, Travels, in 1773, the discovery of Canna indica in Alabama near Mobile, “Canna indica is surprising in luxuriance, presenting a glorious show, the stem rises six, seven, and nine feet high, terminating upwards with spikes of scarlet flowers.

Canna indica x hybrids Canna TROPICAL AMERICA Although the Canna indica is an invader species, its colourful hybrids are not. These striking rhizomatous plants bear bright red, yellow, pink, orange or cream flowers in summer





Its leaves are pounded with fresh leaves of senecio petitanus and mix in warm water for bathing or pound leaves 2 handfuls of leaves mixed in little worm water and drink a half glass 3 times a day

Cough: Take 1 teaspoon of liquid P. (2) for 3 times a day.

Convulsion: take 1 glass 3 times a day of the cold extract P. (1).

Malaria: take 4 tablespoons 3 times a day of P.  (2) For 4 days.

Skin infections: Apply fresh-pounded leaves.

Obesity: make leaf decoction as P. (3) and drink a half a glass 3 times a day for a long period.

Epilepsy: take 1 glass 3 times a day of the cold extract P. (1) and continue taking other medical treatment.

Women’s problems or menstruation problems: Take hipbath with warmed P (1) or pound fresh leaves and pad on abdomen for 2 hours.

Constipation with babies: pound 1 handful of fresh leaves and mix with 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil and put little in the anus.

Stomach and digestion problems of babies: make cold leaf extract P. (1) and give 2 tablespoons 3 time a day

Stomach upset: make cold leaf extract P.()1 and then take a half a glass 3 times a day.

Fallopian tubes: pound the bark, boil and then take one teaspoon x3 a day.

Pressure and ulcers: pound the bark, dry, pound to powder, boil powder and take.

Syphilis: pound the bark to powder, boil and take.


P. (1) cold leaf extraction: pound 2 handfuls of fresh leaves and add a half liter of water and take.

P. (2) leaf liquid: worm leaves for 1 minute on fire and squeeze out the liquid.

P. (3) leaf decoction: boil 2 handful of fresh leaves and boil in 1 liter of water for 5 minutes

Compiled by proficient G Muteguya 



The whole plant is anthelmintic, antiphlogistic, astringent, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, lithontripic, stomachic and stypticIt is used in the treatment of influenza, fever, urinary tract infections, enteritis, diarrhea, traumatic injuries, sprains and poisonous snake bites. The juice of the plant, mixed with butter, is applied to muscular swellings, boils and pimples. An infusion can be used as a wash to rid children of hookworms. The plant is a good source of vitamin C and is used as an antiscorbutic in the treatment of scurvy The leaves are used as an antidote to poisoning by the seeds of Datura spp, arsenic and mercury. The leaf juice is applied to insect bites, burns and skin eruptions] It has an antibacterial activity

  1. The leaf juice in the dose of 15-25 ml is administered in the conditions like bloody diarrhea, prolapse of rectum etc. It can also be administered in these conditions by boiling these leaves in cows butter milk for better results.
  2. The leaves are crushed and used as an external application in the conditions like painful swelling or any inflammation. This will provide a cooling effect to these areas and reduce the symptoms.
  3. The leaves can be consumed internally as it is or in the form of chutney, in the conditions like Gunman or disorders of the abdomen.
  4. The decoction prepared by samoolam is a good medicine for fever.
  5. The leaf juice along with the juice obtained from onion is mixed and applied in the areas of wart and moll scum contagious. The daily use of this will show good results.
  6. Leaf paste is externally applied over forehead for headache.
  7. The leaves are good source of vitamin C, Calcium and carotene.
  8. In the conditions of Sool vanthi or Hyperemesis gravidorum, the chutney prepared from the leaves, ground coconut, salt and lemon juice can improve the condition.
  9. Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.




Other Names:

Asclépiade, Asclépiade Pleurétique, Asclépiade Tubéreuse, Asclepias tuberosa, Butterfly Weed, Canada Root, Flux Root, Orange Milkweed, Orange Swallow Wort, Pleurisy, Racine du Canada, Racine Colique, Racine de Flux, Racine de Tubercule, Swallow …

Indications: Pleurisy Root is effective against respiratory infections where it reduces inflammations and assists expectoration. It can be used in the treatment of bronchitis and other chest condition. The addition of diaphoretic and anti-spasmodic powers will show why it is so highly valued in the treatment of pleurisy and pneumonia. It can be used in influenza. Priest & Priest give the following specific indications: catarrhal complaints from cold and damp; hard dry cough.Bronchitispleurisyperitonitis.Pneumonia, influenzaand intercostals rheumatism and intercostals diseases. To quote King’s at length: “It was one of the most common medicines employed by the eclectic fathers. It was favorably written upon by most of the earlier writers on American medicinal plants. The drug has fallen into unmerited neglect, and could profitably be employed at the present day for purposes for which much more powerful and sometimes dangerous, drugs are used. It has an extensive range of usefulness, being possessed of diaphoretic, diuretic, laxative, tonic, carminative, expectorant, and probably anti-spasmodic properties. Asclepias is one of the best diaphoretics of the Eclectic material medical. It is not stimulating, and may be used to promote diaphoresis, no matter how high the degree of fever. Pleurisy root has a deservedly good reputation in respiratory diseases. It acts upon the mucous membrane of the pulmonary tract, augmenting the secretions and favoring easy expectoration. Besides its action on the respiratory mucous surfaces its action upon the skin as a true diaphoretic, establishing the insensible perspiration when the skin is dry and harsh, and correcting that weakness of the skin which allows the sweat to pour out too freely, renders it of value in the sweating of phthisis. As its popular name indicates pleurisy root is of much value in treating pleurisyNot only is its action on serous membranes marked, but it is very effectual in intercostals neuralgia and rheumatism, as well as in pericardial painsThe chief action of Asclepias is to lessen arterial tension, and acute diseases are those in which it is of most value. With the indicated sedative it is one of the best known agents in the early stage of pneumonia, provided always the indications alluded to are present. Some cases will yield to Asclepias alone, but this is not generally the case, as the drug plays more the role of an assistant than a leading remedy. It is as afe drug, for while it may not act as efficiently when not indicated, it maybe said to never be contraindicated, so far as expecting any harm from its use is concerned. In pneumonia, as well as in bronchitisit is best adapted to the acute stage, where the lesion seems to be extensive, taking in a large area of lung parenchyma and mucous tissues. It undoubtedly acts upon the general circulatory apparatus, lowering arterial tension. In the convalescing stage of pneumonia, and other respiratory lesions, when suppression of the expectoration and dyspnoea threaten, small doses at frequent intervals will correct the trouble. In catarrhal troubles specific Asclepias, well diluted, is useful as a local remedy when used early in the disease. It, as well as Euphrasia and Matricaria, is among our best drugs for snuffles, or acute nasal catarrh of infantsIt is an excellent remedy for ordinary coldsIt is, in fact one of our best drugs for catarrhal conditions, whether of the pulmonary or gastro-intestinal tract, especially when produced by recent colds. Stomach troublesparticularly those of children, are often markedly benefited by small doses. Diarrhea and dysenterywhen of catarrhal character and due to cold are benefited by alternating with other indicated remedies. As a remedy for gastric disorders it is well adapted to children and weak individuals. Headache from disordered digestion has been cured with it, and for flatulent colic in young children. Dioscorea may also be administered with it in cases of flatus in adults and children. Asclepias is a remedy for nervous irritability of children, especially when due to gastric disturbances. The dry forms of coetaneous affections are benefited by it especially where it is necessary to establish the true dermal secretions. It is not an active agent yet on the whole, though apparently a feeble remedy, when indicated, it accomplishes a purpose which no other remedy in the material medic fulfils.” Proficient G. Muteguya goes ahead to say that when ane spoonful of dried ground root per cup af water, drink one or two cups a day. The leaves and the stem may cause poisoning when consumed fresh, since they contain a toxic glycoside that disappear with drying. 



 All parts of soursop can be used: flowers, leaves, fruit, pips and root. An infusion of soursop leaves is commonly used as a digestive, as a liver aid and to fight depression, hypertension, insomnia and migraines. Flowers are used to treat rheum and the crushed pips can be used to expel intestinal worms. The fruit is recommended for diabetes, constipation, fever and overweight. As the pulp is a bit tart, it can be added to smoothies, desserts and ice-creams.

All plant parts are used in natural medicine, including bark, leaves, roots and fruits, but the part that contains the greatest concentration of active ingredient is the leaf, where the Annonaceae acetogenins, which have been widely studied from the 1940 that came into use as an insecticide, leading to surprise scientists for its broad power, without causing any harmful effects in animals and man, so they agreed to fund research where, each day discovering new properties, which, as a result of scientific zeal and vested interests, remained in custody for over 20 years. Globalization and parallel studies in Japan and China, they found the light, the wonders of this generous plant. Soursop leaf and bark (Powder), cure diabetes by regulating blood sugar, which shows its high effectiveness in endocrine commitments: liver, kidney, thyroid, pancreas, ovary, prostate, intestines, muscle relaxant smooth (heart), gall bladder, appendix and fights lung cancer. Breast cancer and brain tumors, hypotensive, anti-spasmodic, vasodilator, eliminates dust mites (enyabakaikuru) that cause asthma and bronchial diseases. The leaf tea cure liver problems, improves the function of the pancreas. It is effective to deworm children, malaria cure, indicated to raise the defenses in patients with chemotherapy and also for people with HIV (AIDS). The fruit has been used as an antiparasitic, antipyretic (reduces fever) and astringent in diarrhea. The stems, leaves and roots are considered sedative, hypotensive (blood pressure lowering), antispasmodic and anti-diabetic. The leaves are used as a tea against catarrh (inflammation of mucous membranes). The ground seeds are used by Andean tribes against intestinal parasites. In recent years, the extract of guava has become widely acclaimed for having highly potent properties to fight cancer. Since March 2003, e-mails circulating on the Internet stating that the soursop tea cures cancer. It is the best alternative when you can not resort to surgery or therapy or Radium Cobalt therapy or when you have to stop chemotherapy for their action and atrogenica (side effects) on the liver and kidneys. There is no conflict and contrary complements very well with any treatment that this subject the patient to improve the quality. They have absolutely no side effects or intolerance or allergic reactions. The soursop is the most powerful anti-cancer plant on the planet, used for over 40 years in the U.S., Europe and Asia.

Medicinal Uses: Proficient G. Muteguya assures that the juice of the ripe fruit is said to be diuretic and a remedy for haematuria and urethritis. Taken when fasting, it is believed to relieve liver ailments and leprosy. Pulverized immature fruits, which are very astringent, are decocted as a dysentery remedy. To draw out chiggers and speed healing, the flesh of an acid soursop is applied as a poultice unchanged for 3 days. In Materia Medica of British Guiana, we are told to break soursop leaves in water, “squeeze a couple of limes therein, get a drunken man and rub his head well with the leaves and water and give him a little of the water to drink and he gets as sober as a judge in no time.” This sobering or tranquilizing formula may not have been widely tested, but soursop leaves are regarded throughout the West Indies as having sedative or soporific properties. In the Netherlands Antilles, the leaves are put into one’s pillowslip or strewn on the bed to promote a good night’s sleep. An infusion of the leaves is commonly taken internally for the same purpose. It is taken as an analgesic and antispasmodic in Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador. In Africa, it is given to children with fever and they are also bathed lightly with it. A decoction of the young shoots or leaves is regarded in the West Indies as a remedy for gall bladder trouble, as well as coughs, catarrh, diarrhea, dysentery and indigestion; is said to “cool the blood,” and to be able to stop vomiting and aid delivery in childbirth. The decoction is also employed in wet compresses on inflammations and swollen feet. The chewed leaves, mixed with saliva, are applied to incisions after surgery, causing proudflesh to disappear without leaving a scar. Mashed leaves are used as a poultice to alleviate eczema and other skin afflictions and rheumatism, and the sap of young leaves is put on skin eruptions. The roots of the tree are employed as a vermifuge and the root bark as an antidote for poisoning. A tincture of the powdered seeds and bay rum is a strong emetic. Soursop flowers are believed to alleviate catarrh.



The senna is well known drug in Unani, Ayurvedic and Allopathic systems of medicines and is also a house hold medicine. The drug from India is known as Tinnevelly senna. The dried leaves and pods comprise the drug, the former known as Senna leaf and later Senna fruit as pod. The commercial drug consists of dried green leaves and shells of nearly dried and  ripe pods. The flowers are reported to contain considerable quantity of sennoside (2.6%). The commercial samples of pod (shells) contain sennosides 3 to 5% and the foliage 2.5 to 4

The Senna leaves and pods contain sennasoides A, B, C, D, G, rhein, aloe-amine, Kaempferein and iso-rhein in the free and compound glycoside forms. The leaves, pods and roots of Cassia senna contains rhein, chrysophenol, imodin and aloe-imodin

The leaves and pods (shells) are usually administered in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine as infusion, and considered a great tonic. The milk of nursing women acquires purgative properties after the use of senna. The drug is contra indicated in spastic constipation and colitis. The senna is an efficient purgative either for occasional use or for habitual constipation. It is free from astringent action of rhubarb (Rheum sp.) type but has a tendency to cause gripe ; hence it is combined with carminatives, aromatics and other saline laxatives ; the pods, however, cause less gripe. The disagreeable odour is masked by the addition of ginger or cloves. In India several household preparations such as decoction, powder, syrup, infusion and confection are made with senna. It enters into a compound Nilaavarai Churnam used for treating distention of stomach, hiccups, vomiting and biliousness Besides being an excellent laxative, the senna is used as a febrifuge, in splenic enlargements, anemia, typhoid, cholera, biliousness, jaundice, gout, rheumatism, tumours, foul breath and bronchitis and probably in leprosy. It is employed in the treatment of amoebic dysentery, as an anthelmintic and as a mild liver stimulant. The leaf is one of the constituents of a patented drug reported to have protective effects on the liver. The leaves in the form of confection of senna are used in treating hemorrhoids. They are externally used for certain skin diseases and the powdered leaves in the vinegar are applied to wounds and burns, and to remove pimples. However, it has been known to cause a severe and painful dermatitis in sensitized persons. The leaves along with those of hina are used to dye the hair black (Chopra et al. 1958).

Botanical name:- Cassia occidentalis Linn.

It is known by different names. In Hindi ; Badikanodi, Chakunda, Kasonda, in English ; Coffee-senna, Foetid Cassia, Negro coffee, Rubbish Cassia, Stinking-weed, in Sanskrit:- Kasamarda and in Rajasthan, Chakundra Talka.

An erect, foetid, annual herb or under shrub, 60-150 cm. in height found throughout in India up to an altitude of 1500 m. Leaves, 15-20 cm. long, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, leaflets 3 pairs, membranous, glucose, ovate  or  lancelet ;  flowers yellow,  in  short racemes ;  pods  recurved,

glabrous, compressed 10-13 cms x 0.8 cm. ;  seeds dark olive green, ovoid, compressed 6 mm. x  4 mm., hard and  smooth shining.

The herb is reported to be used as condiment and in perfumery. The young leaves are eaten aloned as potherb or cooked along with unripe pods and eaten with rice; the leaf when eaten is reported to act as a prophylactic against leucorrhoea.

The herb can be utilized as cattle-feed and can from maintenance ration for bullocks although suspected poisoning of stock in Northern Queensland and scouring in heifers have been reported. The herb can be used for reclamation of land and also as green manure to restore fertility in exhausted fields. It is often cultivated as a shade plant.

All parts of the plant have almost similar properties. They possess purgative, tonic, febrifugal, expectorant and diuretic properties. The plant is used to cure sore eyes, haematuria, rheumatism, typhoid, asthma and disorders of haemoglobin, is also reported to cure leprosy. A decoction of the plant is used in hysteria, in dysentery and other stomach troubles, and also as an application to sores, itch and inflammation of the rectum. The plant is employed in dropsy, and as a vermifuge. Along with other plant as, it is made into an ointment used for skin diseases. The herb forms an ingredient of the patented indigenous herbal drug “Liv-52”, which shows marked effect in the early cases of hepatic cirrhosis having steatorrhoea ; Liv-52 reduced the toxicity of cadmium and beryllium in experimentally infected rats with SFV (Semiliki forest encephalitis virus). As an ingredient effect in rats; excellent response was recorded in senile pruritus cases. An infusion of the bark is given in diabetes. The volatile oil obtained from the leaves, roots and seeds showed anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity. The leaves have purgative, febrifugal, tonic, sudorific, diuretic and stomachic properties. They are given in cough and hysteria. A lotion of the leaves is used as an eye-wash in tetanus. The leaves are used internally and externally in skin-diseases, such as itches, yaws, scabies and ring-worm. A decoction of the leaves is given to children as a mild vermifuge; the hot decoction is given as an antipatriotic and is reported to be preferred to quinine for its tonic properties. The fresh leaves, pounded with salt and onions, are applied as a poultice to guinea worm sores to extruse the worms. They are used in the inflammatory swelling, rheumatism, wounds, sprains and wrenches and also given in jaundice, pleurisy, headache and toothache. A paste of the leaves with calcium hydroxide is applied on abscesses for quick opening and pus clearance. The leaf paste is also applied externally for bone fracture. The leaves are used in foot and mouth disease of cattle. Their extract exhibits activity against earthworms.

The seed is bitter and has tonic, febrifugal and purgative properties. It is considered to be a blood tonic and excellent diuretic. Seeds are useful in cough and whooping cough, convulsions and in heart diseases. Their powder is externally applied in coetaneous diseases and eruptions. The extracts showed positive response on guinea pig-ileum, rat-uterus, rabbit-heart, and depressor-effect on blood-pressure of dogs, and also activity against earthworms.  Like all systems of Indian sciences, the science of medicine has taken origin from the gods. According to Indian mythology, Ayurveda was first